End-Stage Kidney Disease: What It Is, Causes, Dialysis, and More (2023)


What is End Stage Kidney Disease?

End-stage renal disease (ESKD) or kidney failure is the fifth and final stagechronic kidney diseaseprogression (CKD). With chronic kidney disease, your kidneys can no longer do their daily work. If they fail, you need therapyresolutionshe haskidney transplantSurvive.

What are the kidneys doing?

The kidneys are bean-shaped organs located deep in the body in the back, near the hips. Most people have two kidneys. But some people are born with only one kidney or only one functioning kidney. Other people only have one kidney because they donated one or had it removed for other health reasons. In most cases, one kidney can do whatever your body needs.

The kidneys:

  • Filter the blood (about half a cup per minute) to remove waste, excess water, and acid.
  • Help the body maintain a healthy balance of water, salt, and minerals like potassium, calcium, and magnesium.
  • Urinating or peeing to help the body get rid of waste.
  • Make hormones to control blood pressure, keep bones strong, and make red blood cells to prevent anemia.

symptoms and causes

What Causes Kidney Failure?

Kidney disease is caused by many different health problems that can damage the kidneys. The damage can occur all at once or gradually over many years. Ultimately, kidney disease can lead to kidney failure.

The most common causes of kidney disease include:

  • autoimmune disease (Wolf, For example).
  • Birth defects that affect kidney development.
  • Cysts (fluid pockets) in the kidneys caused by a condition called a hereditary diseasepolycystic kidney disease.
  • Diabetes(This is the most common cause in the US).
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)(This is the second most common cause in the US) andheart disease.
  • Nierenstein.
  • Severe or recurring infections, inclurinary tract infection.

What are the symptoms of end-stage kidney disease?

Early kidney disease is often asymptomatic. Some people may not realize they have kidney disease until their kidneys fail.

If your kidneys start to fail, the following may occur:

  • Confusion.
  • itching all over the body.
  • loss of appetite
  • Metallic taste in the mouth.
  • muscle spasms or contractions.
  • nausea and vomiting.
  • difficulty breathing.
  • swelling in your feet or ankles.
  • Excessive or insufficient urine production.
  • Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much.

If you experience any of these symptoms, contact a doctor immediately.

What are the complications of kidney failure?

End-stage renal failure can lead to complications and emergencies that require treatment, such as:

  • Anämie(Not enough red blood cells to carry oxygen around the body.)
  • bone disease.
  • brain damage.
  • Edema(Swelling)
  • fluid in and around the lungs.
  • High in certain metals (potassium or phosphorus).
  • infections.
  • nerve damage.
  • attack.
  • slag.

diagnosis and control

What tests should I do if I have kidney disease?

People with chronic kidney disease usually see a kidney specialist called a nephrologist. This healthcare provider takes blood samples on a set schedule to measure:

  • Albumin (Protein).
  • Calcium (mineral), phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (bone marker++)++
  • cholesterol (fat).
  • creatinine (muscle waste product).
  • Magnesium (Mineral).
  • Potassium and sodium (electrolytes).
  • Red blood cells and complete blood count (CBC).

management and treatment

Can Doctors Treat Kidney Failure?

Healthcare providers can treat, slow, or stop kidney disease, but they cannot cure kidney failure. A person with end-stage kidney disease needsresolutionshe haskidney transplantSurvive.

When do you know you need dialysis or a kidney transplant?

Your doctor will calculate a special value called the Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, or eGFR. This score helps the provider monitor the severity of kidney disease over time. It starts at 100 (highest kidney function) and goes down to 0 (no kidney function). A score below 15 indicates kidney failure and the need for dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Healthcare providers determine the filtration rate based on:

  • bee
  • blood creatinine level.
  • Height.
  • Sex.

What is hemodialysis?

Dialysis does the work of the kidneys to keep your body in balance. It has no effect on kidney function. There are two common types:

  • Dialysis:A machine called hemodialysis takes blood from your body, filters it, and then returns the cleaned blood to your body. Healthcare providers need to use the blood vessels in your arm to carry blood.
  • Peritonealdialyse:This treatment cleans the blood while it is still in your body. First, doctors insert a plastic tube into your stomach. They then pump a solution that catches excess liquid and dirt. You remove the solution at the end of the cleaning.

Where can I have hemodialysis performed?

You can have dialysis in a hospital, dialysis clinic, or at home. Your doctor will help you decide which solution is best for you.

How long does dialysis take?

Normally, each dialysis treatment lasts around four hours. Most dialysis patients need these three times a week. A peritoneal dialysis treatment lasts 30 to 40 minutes and should be carried out several times a day.

Your nephrologist will decide what type of dialysis you need based on the following criteria:

  • The amount of waste in your body.
  • how much liquid do you have
  • your kidney function.
  • Your size.

A person waiting for a kidney transplant will need dialysis treatment until the time of surgery.

What is a kidney transplant?

A kidney transplant is a procedure in which surgeons replace the diseased kidney with a new one in the groin. The kidney may be from a deceased person or from someone elseliving donor. Remember that most people have two kidneys and can live with one healthy kidney.

Your healthcare team will run tests to determine if the donor kidney is a good fit for you. To prevent your body from rejecting a new kidney, you need to take special medication. These drugs are called anti-rejection drugs or immunosuppressants.

After a successful transplant, the donated kidney begins to filter the blood and remove waste.

Nursing at the Cleveland Clinic

  • Treatment of chronic kidney disease
  • Find a doctor and specialists
  • i make a deal


Can I prevent kidney failure?

The best way to prevent end-stage kidney disease is to treat the disease that's damaging your kidneys, particularly high blood pressure or diabetes. This limits the extent of kidney damage.

Outlook / Forecast

What is the outlook for someone with kidney failure?

Doctors cannot treat kidney failure, and the disease is life-threatening. But dialysis or a kidney transplant can help you live longer and manage any symptoms or complications you may have. You can also do the things you enjoy.

live with me

Do I need to change my lifestyle to manage kidney failure?

People with severe kidney disease (including those on dialysis) should:

  • Exercise.
  • Limit liquids.
  • Limit foods that contain phosphorus, potassium, or sodium (salt).

A nutritionist can help you plan the right diet for kidney disease.

Can I still work if my kidneys fail?

Many people with kidney failure continue to work. It can make you feel more normal and productive. And it can offer insurance to cover your healthcare costs.

Healthcare providers can help you create a treatment plan that fits your professional needs. You can even ask your doctor for a social worker to help you talk to your employer. For example, if you are undergoing peritoneal dialysis yourself, you need access to a clean workspace. If you are on dialysis, your employer needs to know that you are not allowed to lift heavy objects.

If you cannot work, public and private programs can help. They can provide money, medical insurance, and transportation to doctor appointments and treatments. A social worker can help you find and apply for such programs.

Note from the Cleveland Clinic

End-stage kidney disease is the end stage of chronic kidney disease. It marks the point at which kidney function drops to a very low level. Kidney failure is life-threatening, but dialysis or a transplant can relieve weakened kidneys. If you have kidney disease, a nurse can help treat the cause and monitor your kidney function.


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